Wildlife Trafficking

The illegal trafficking of wildlife is a multibillion-dollar industry and it is now recognized as a leading threat not only to biodiversity conservation, but also to public health. Evidence is mounting that diseases emerging from wildlife trade can have exorbitant public health and economic consequences. The 2003 SARS outbreak that infected thousands of people and caused billions of dollars of economic damage has been linked to wildlife sold in Chinese wildlife markets. The ongoing COVID-19 Coronavirus outbreak, originating from wildlife traded in a market in China, is already having severe economic impacts. 

The immense profitability of this illegal wildlife trafficking has hindered decades of conservation-focused advocacy work. However, the negative public health and costly economic impacts of emerging diseases represent a compelling argument for governments to enforce existing laws and create new ones as needed to halt this destructive practice. Working with a wide range of partners, WCS health scientists are collecting data on diseases emerging from the global wildlife trade. This vital information is needed to better characterize public health threats and help leverage political will to turn the tide against this ecologically devastating industry. 

Wildlife Trade and Human Health in Lao PDR: An Assessment of the Zoonotic Disease Risk in Markets 

WCS was a key partner in the LACANET project that researched the prevalence of diseases of local importance, such as typhus, anthrax, rabies, leptospirosis and trichinella, in wildlife in markets in Southeast Asia to better understand the risks and guide disease outbreak response and mitigation strategies. The WCS Health Program was also a key partner of the global PREDICT project, funded by USAID, studying emerging zoonotic viruses where risky human behaviors, such as wildlife trade, hunting, trafficking, farming and consumption of wildlife, increase the likelihood of disease spillover events. Read more about our PREDICT work here.

In addition to studying the health implications of wildlife trade, the WCS Health Programs are working on molecular tools for genetic tracing to identify endangered species in trade and support wildlife trade enforcement:

Barcoding at the Border: On-the-go Genetic Test to Stop Illegal Wildlife Trafficking


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